Components are drops from machines.
Usually you loot components from machines after you kill and search them.
But sometimes, they will drop from the machines as you strike them.
It's best to use light strikes (R1) to better knock them off (there's even a skill you can unlock to improve your chances) but almost any attack has a chance to do so.
Once 10 components drop off from your machine encounters, you will see this trophy pop.
(You can also loot the dropped components but I don't think it's required to loot them to get the trophy, just have them drop.)