Raritanium can be obtained through 2 ways; Space missions and Mining. Space Missions are available at the locations Thug Rendezvous, Deep Space Disposal and the Thugs-4-Less Fleet.
Mining can be completed on the planets Tabora and Grelbin. Tabora is the easiest of the 2 planets to mine on, and requires the gravity boots to get to the vehicle. Grelbin is much harder to mine on, due to the sheer amount of Yeti enemies that can be found on the planet. The mining vehicle for Grelbin is unlocked through natural story progression.
I found the best way to to obtain Raritanium was to obtain 60 Raritanium either through space missions or mining, and then purchase the Nuke weapon for your ship. Once you had the Nuke, head to the Deep Space Disposal and start up mission 3. Aim at the large sphere in the centre of the map, and shoot off your nuke. This should kill most enemies on the level, and about 5 raritanium should be dropped. Pick that up, and restart the mission.
You need a total of just under 300 raritanium to obtain all the upgrades needed to buy all the applicable items for this trophy. The wings and colours for your ship are not needed.