No Man's Sky is, at its core, a game about mining and resource management. And there is actually a lot of management in this one, made more severe by playing in Permadeath. My general tip is STOCK UP WELL. If you run out of things, it can be easy to die. No Man's Sky is an overwhelmingly massive game which doesn't care about you, and it can be easy to run out of even one of the things you need, and die. There's no reason to be reckless, money is easy to make and safety is easy to maintain. Below is a list of the main things you'll be using, what you need to fuel them, and how to get that fuel.
About 90% or more of the time, if you're on a planet and not in your ship, your hazard protection will be running. Its meter will drain and will need sodium or sodium nitrate (the latter being more efficient, and thus requiring fewer to be stockpiled) to fuel them. Both forms of sodium can be commonly and cheaply bought at space stations. You can find sodium flowers on every planet, your scanner shows them as a yellow 'Na' (which is the chemical symbol for sodium), and for a while, you will be dependent on these flowers. You can also fuel the hazard protection with other items like ion batteries, but these are less efficient to stack.
If you are on a planet and moving, your life support will be running. If you are sprinting or using your jetpack (or heaven forbid, both), it will drain faster. To fuel this, you will need either oxygen or dioxite (the latter being more efficient) to fuel them. You can find oxygen flowers on every planet and your scanner registers them as a red 'O2' symbol. You can also buy oxygen at just about every terminal in the game, and dioxite in a good deal of them too. You can also fuel them with things like the life support gel, but again, these items stack less efficiently for how often you have to use them.
Every time you launch your ship, provided you are not doing so from a space station, landing beacon or designated landing spot such as at a trading post, you will be using launch fuel. You can craft starship launch fuel, but it is more efficient to stack uranium, which does the same job. You can find uranium on a few planets, mostly radioactive ones, and from some merchants. Because some places don't sell it, don't wait until you run out to go find some uranium. You can run out of launch fuel, surrounded by predatory creatures who you can't fight off, and have no means of escape or defending yourself.
When you're using your pulse engine in space, you are consuming your pulse engine meter. This is fuelled by tritium or pyrite (the latter of which being more efficient). You can get tritium by shooting rocks in space, or by buying it, pyrite is easiest to get just by buying it. Without a pulse engine, you can get stuck in a space battle which you might not be able to win and can get shot out of the sky.
Also remember that when storing things in your ship (or indeed in your freighter), you often have bigger stack sizes than if stored in your exo-suit. If uranium is only ever used for your ship, why keep 2 stacks of 250 uranium on your suit when you can have 1 stack of 500 on your ship?
Finally, when it comes to upgrading your suit and ship, remember to install upgrades to the same thing next to each other (keep your mining laser upgrades in one bit, your shield upgrades in another), as you get a bonus for organising your upgrades with synergy.
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